zirconium hafnium hydrometallurgy

Separation of zirconium and hafnium from nitric acid ...

Dec 01, 2014· 1. Introduction. Zirconium is always accompanied by hafnium in nature and therefore termed congeneric. Zircon (ZrSiO 4) and baddeleyite (ZrO 2) are the major minerals for zirconium and contained more than 0.5% hafnium, which originates from the substitution of zirconium in the crystal lattice (Taghizadeh et al., 2011).Zirconium has low average neutron capture cross-section, while hafnium …

Energies | Free Full-Text | Design of an Extractive ...

Nuclear power with strengthened safety regulations continues to be used as an important resource in the world for managing atmospheric greenhouse gases and associated climate change. This study examined the environmentally benign separation of zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4) and hafnium tetrachloride (HfCl4) for nuclear power reactor applications through extractive distillation using a NaCl ...

Separation of zirconium and hafnium using Diphonix ...

Feb 01, 2009· 1. Introduction. Hafnium occurs in all zirconium ores in the range of 2–3% but the use of these elements in the nuclear industry requires that reactor grade zirconium contains less than 100 ppm of hafnium, which is difficult because of their similar chemical properties resulting from almost identical atomic and ionic radii.

(PDF) Separation of zirconium from hafnium in sulfate ...

Hydrometallurgy. 165, 275 ... The optimum conditions for hafnium and zirconium separation was that the aqueous acidity is 1.0 mol/L, the concentration of P204 in the organic phase is 10% (v/v ...

Selective recovery and separation of Zr and Hf from ...

Zirconium Hafnium Separation Ion exchange Eudialyte ABSTRACT Apart from zircon and baddeleyite, some other minerals also contain amounts of Zr and Hf, and H 2SO 4 can be the best candidate leachate for their recovery. The subsequent step in the process would be the recovery and se-

Dr. Reza Ghasemzadeh - Iran University of Science ...

Personal Details. NAME: Reza SURNAME: Ghasemzadeh Year of Birth: 1944 ACCADEMIC STATUS: Professor, School of Metallurgy & Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Since 1973 . Fields of Research Interests: Extractive Metallurgy, Transport Phenomena, Fuels and Energy, Furnaces

Separation of zirconium and hafnium by solvent extraction ...

Oct 01, 2016· 1. Introduction. Zirconium is mainly used for cladding nuclear reactor fuels due to its low neutron capture cross section and strong resistance to corrosion, whereas neutron absorption cross section of hafnium is 640 times higher than that of zirconium (Banda et al., 2013a).Zirconium and hafnium are normally associated together in nature (Hf / (Zr + Hf) is about 1–3%) and it is difficult for ...

Method of extracting zirconium and hafnium

FIELD: chemistry. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of rare metals, in particular to hydrometallurgy of zirconium and hafnium. Method of zirconium and hafnium separation includes obtaining zirconium and hafnium hydroxides at temperature, not higher than 30-35°C, dehydration of obtained zirconium and hafnium hydroxides, their dissolution in nitric acid and following extraction of ...

Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium: A Review | SpringerLink

Zirconium is an ideal material for nuclear reactors due to its low absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, whereas the typically contained hafnium with strong neutron-absorption is very harmful for zirconium. This paper provides an overview of the processes for separating hafnium from zirconium.

Research progress in hydrometallurgical separation of ...

The optimum conditions for hafnium and zirconium separation was that the aqueous acidity is 1.0 mol/L, the concentration of P204 in the organic phase is 10% (v/v), the contacting time is 15 min ...

Separation of zirconium from hafnium in nitric acid ...

Jun 01, 1978· Hydrometallurgy, 3:265--274 The solvent extraction of zirconium and hafnium from nitric acid solutions into dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP)/Solvesso 150 has been studied, as a function of acidity, DBBP and metal concentration.

Zirconium - Wikipedia

Zirconium is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. The name zirconium is taken from the name of the mineral zircon (the word is related to Persian zargun (zircon; zar-gun, "gold-like" or "as gold")), the most important source of zirconium. It is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal that closely resembles hafnium and, to a lesser extent, titanium.

Equilibrium of zirconium and hafnium in the process of ...

Jan 15, 2020· As more nuclear reactors are constructed, the demand for hafnium-free zirconium also increases. The separation of zirconium and hafnium is the fundamental step for the production of nuclear grade zirconium; however, a small number of companies in the USA, France and Russia dominate the technology for the production of nuclear grade zirconium.

Separation of Zr from Hf in Hydrochloric Acid Solution ...

Liquid–liquid extraction studies have been performed to investigate the selective extraction of zirconium (Zr) and hafnium (Hf) in hydrochloric acid medium. For this purpose, several amine-based extractants were used at varying concentrations of extractants and HCl. Among the tested extractants, Alamine 336 showed good selectivity for Zr over Hf and led to the highest separation factor. A ...

Extraction and Separation of Zirconium Using 1-Octanol ...

Based on the selectivity of zirconium over hafnium in the organic phase, a McCabe-Thiele diagram was constructed. ... Hydrometallurgy. 90, 115-120. Solvent Extraction of Zirconium and Hafnium with ...

(PDF) Intensification of zirconium and hafnium separation ...

Zahakifar, Intensification of zirconium and hafnium separation through the hollow fiber renewal liquid membrane technique using synergistic mixture of TBP and Cyanex-272 as extractant.

Determination of optimum process conditions for the ...

Under these conditions, a separation factor of 8.1 and zirconium Fig. 5. Extraction of zirconium/hafnium versus nitric acid concentration using Cyanex 272. Fig. 6. Extraction of zirconium/hafnium versus nitric acid concentration using D2EHPA. M. Taghizadeh et al. / Hydrometallurgy 90 (2008) 115–120 119 extraction of about 71% were achieved.

Separation of hafnium from zirconium in hydrochloric acid ...

Jan 17, 2019· The preparation of nuclear-grade zirconium and hafnium is very important for nuclear power. The separation of hafnium from zirconium in a hydrochloric acid solution by solvent extraction was investigated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA). The effects of hydrochloric acid concentration, extractant concentration, diluents, and temperature on the distribution coefficient of hafnium ...

Solvent extraction separation of zirconium and hafnium ...

AbstractA solvent extraction method has been employed to extract and separate zirconium and hafnium from the nitric acid medium using Cyanex-272 and its mixture with TBP in kerosene. The effects of the experimental parameters such as contact time between phases, aging time, nitric acid concentration, Cyanex-272 and TBP concentration on the metals separation, and various stripping agents on the ...

Preferential extraction of hafnium over zirconium with ...

May 28, 2019· Nuclear grade zirconium and hafnium are important materials in nuclear power plants, which are usually produced with solvent extraction and separation technology. In this paper, the preferential extracting hafnium was successfully achieved by the selective complexation of the selected organic acids. Hydrochloric acid concentration, organic acid concentration, D2EHPA concentration …

Study of Zirconium and Hafnium Separation by Solvent ...

2) Hydrochloric medium. Figure 3 shows the results of the extraction of zirconium and hafnium using the acid extractants DEHPA, IONQUEST ® 801 and CYANEX ® 272 in a hydrochloric medium. Table 3 shows the separation factor of Zr/Hf for the acid extractants in this medium. The behavior of the acid extractants in a hydrochloric medium was very similar to that in a nitric medium, obtaining a ...

Solvent Extraction in Hydrometallurgy. A Historical ...

the separation of zirconium from hafnium. In this process, zirconium is preferentially extracted by TBP from aque- ous nitric acid. Approximately 15% of the total quan- tity of TBP manufactured annually is used in metal extraction. The bulk is used as a anti-foaming platicizer, anti-oxidant agent, in hydraulic fluids, and as a fire retardant.

Minerals Engineering International Online - Commodities ...

M. Smolik, A. Jakobik-Kolon, M. Poranski, Separation of zirconium and hafnium using Diphonix(R) chelating ion-exchange resin, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 95, No. 3-4, 2009 Venter, J.A., et al, Influence of surface effects on the electrostatic separation of zircon and rutile, Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining & Metallurgy, Vol.108 ...

Extraction of zirconium and hafnium from concentrated ...

This article shows the investigation of peculiarities of preparation and stability of concentrated solutions of zirconium (hafnium) nitrates, containing 100–350 g/dm3 of zirconium (hafnium) and 2–6 mol/dm3 of nitric acid. There were found the optimum conditions of concentrated nitrate solutions preparation, using initial zirconium (hafnium) salt processing by sodium or ammonium hydroxide ...

(PDF) Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium: A Review

[33] M. Smolik, A.J. Kolon, M. Poranski, Hydrometallurgy 95 (2009) 350 e 353. [34] K.A. Kraus, G.E. Moore, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71 ... For the separation of hafnium from zirconium, a CuCl2-containing ...

A new diphosphonic acid extractant N, N - n -octylamine ...

Xu ZG, Wang LJ, Wu M, Xu YL, Chi R, Li PH, Zhao J (2016) Separation of zirconium and hafnium by solvent extraction using mixture of DIBK and P204. Hydrometallurgy 165:275–281. CAS; …

Hydrolytic Behavior of Metal Ions. VI. Ultracentrifugation ...

The influence of the treatment of Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) sulfate solution on the ion-exchange purifying of zirconium from hafnium on Diphonix® resin. Hydrometallurgy 2013, 140, 77-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.hydromet.2013.09.006. Ling Yun Wang, Hwa Young Lee, Man Seung Lee.

A highly selective liquid-liquid extraction technique for ...

Zirconium and Hafnium by Solvent extraction 13. Hwa Young Lee et al., worked on the stoichiometric relation for extraction of Zirconium and Hafnium from acid chloride solution with Versatic acid 1014. Until now, no work has been done on the extraction and separation of Hafnium(IV) with Hexaacetato Calix(6)arene. The complexation phenomena have

The method of purification of zirconium from hafnium

FIELD: hydrometallurgy of zirconium and hafnium; methods of production of potassium hexafluorozirconate purified from hafnium. SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of hydrometallurgy of zirconium and hafnium and may be used in production of potassium hexafluorozirconate. Zirconium, brazilite at presence of a potassium chloride is ...

The Fractional Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium by ...

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Kinetics of interphase transfer of zirconium between ...

The study on the extraction kinetics of zirconium into the binary mixture of tributyl phosphate TBP and n-dodecane has been described in the present investigation. Experiments were carried in a constant interfacial area stirred cell. The effect of different parameters like stirring speed, temperature, specific interfacial area and concentrations of reactants and nitric acid on the extraction ...